This is the last of the principles, focusing on Jobs To Be Done (or JTBD).
In Clay Christensen's words, customers "hire" products or other solutions because they have a specific job to fulfil, not because they belong to a certain segment. The approach echoes Ted Levitt's famous comment about selling ¼ inch holes rather than ¼ inch electric drills and advocates a mindset shift away from selling products to "doing jobs" that solve customers' problems.
In The N2D Method, a "job to be done" (JTBD) is a problem that one of the people you care about is hoping to solve. A JTBD may not always be functional. They may also be emotional or social. Einstein said, “If I had an hour to solve a problem, I would spend 55 minutes thinking about the problem and 5 minutes thinking about solutions.” What we’re really trying to do is to describe those unmet needs.
If you'd like to learn more about JTBD, here are some resources for you: